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Feldenkrais-therapie bij fibromyalgie

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De Feldenkrais methode probeert het bewustzijn van de patiënt voor de wijze waarop bewogen wordt te vergroten en zo therapeutisch effect te bewerkstelligen. Het is een methode om nieuwe bewegingspatronen aan te leren en een nieuw lichaamsbesef te krijgen. 

 

Feldenkrais actieve oefeningen 

Feldenkraistherapie is een vorm van bewegingstherapie. Het is een typisch voorbeeld van een bodymind benadering. [1] Ook wordt wel gesproken van Body Awareness Therapy (BAT). [2] Er zijn patiënten die baat hebben bij deze therapie maar duidelijke wetenschappelijke bewijzen voor de werkzaamheid zijn niet aanwezig.

De effectiviteit is ook sterk afhankelijk van de ervaring van de therapeut. Bij sommige specifieke bewegingsstoornissen, zoals dystonie wordt Feldenkrais wel in sommige gevallen als positief werkzaam beschreven.

Ten opzichte van fysiotherapie kan deze methode soms wat effectiever zijn bij bepaalde patiënten met pijn en stoornissen van het bewegingssysteem. Op geïsoleerde parameters zoals de lengte van bepaalde spieren heeft de methode minder effect. De methode is echter bijzonder omdat men leert andere bewegingsschema’s op te bouwen en dit heeft ook grote invloed op het eigen lichaamsbesef. In deze zin kan Feldenkrais als een soort bewegingsmeditatie gezien worden.

Feldenkrais zelf zei: ‘Maak het onmogelijke mogelijk, het mogelijke makkelijk en het makkelijke elegant.’


Tenslotte een citaat uit zijn boek om een idee te krijgen van zijn visie (p.70):

Hoe groter ons kunnen wordt, hoe minder bewuste krachtsinspanning we ons hoeven te getroosten. De inspanning die nodig is om ons kunnen te vergroten is al een goede oefening voor onze wilskracht.
Als je er goed over nadenkt, zul je ontdekken dat de meeste mensen met een krachtige wil (die ze alleen geoefend hebben om ‘wilskrachtig’ te worden) over het algemeen maar over weinig bekwaamheden beschikken. Mensen, die weten hoe ze doeltreffend kunnen handelen, doen dat zonder veel ophef of voorbereiding.

Zeer wilskrachtige mensen verspillen een heleboel energie in plaats van weinig kracht te gebruiken om een goed resultaat te bereiken. Met beide manieren van werken wordt het doel gewoonlijk wel bereikt, maar de eerste manier kan ook schade berokkenen. Kracht die niet in beweging wordt omgezet verdwijnt niet zomaar maar zet zich om in beschadigingen van gewrichten, de spieren, en de andere delen van het lichaam die bij de inspanning betrokken waren. Energie die niet voor bewegen wordt gebruikt, verandert in warmte en veroorzaakt beschadigingen die hersteld moeten worden voordat het organisme weer goed kan functioneren.

Alles wat we goed kunnen, gaat ons gemakkelijk af. Zelfs mogen we wel zeggen dat bewegingen, die we moeilijk vinden, niet goed worden uitgevoerd.

Om iets te leren hebben we tijd, aandacht en onderscheidingsvermogen nodig. Om te kunnen onderscheiden moeten we voelen. Dat betekent dat we, om iets te leren onderscheiden, ons vermogen om te voelen moeten vergroten. Maar wanneer we de meeste dingen met niets anders dan kracht proberen te doen, zullen we precies het tegenovergestelde bereiken van wat nodig was."

Feldenkrais passief 

Feldenkrais heeft ook een andere techniek ontwikkeld, die van het passief bewegen. Hierbij worden door de therapeut aan beide lichaamshelften kleine bewegingen onderzocht en wordt gekeken hoe het lichaam meebeweegt. Er worden bijvoorbeeld buigingen en strekkingen gegeven in het voetgewricht of de knie of de heup en dan wordt vergeleken of de vrijheidsgraad van bewegen links en rechts vergelijkbaar is. Als de gewrichten in een van de lichaamshelften minder meebewegen, wordt dat diagnostisch gezien als een blokkade in het contralaterale hersendeel. Om deze blokkade op te heffen wordt dan in volgende sessies aanvankelijk gewerkt met het gezonde deel van het lichaam, om via dat deel het ziekteproces te benaderen.

Aandoeningen zoals spasticiteit en verlammingen zouden via deze techniek van Feldenkrais behandelbaar zijn. Ook bij patienten met chronische pijn wordt dit passief bewegen gestart in het niet aangedane deel van het lichaam, om zo omzichtig en indirect het zieke deel te stimuleren.

Een van onze lezers liet ons het volgende weten, afkomstig van een Feldenkrais therapeute:

Als wij mensen bewegen lijkt dat het meest op passief bewegen, maar dat is het niet. Er vindt op dat moment een directe communicatie plaats met het Centraal Zenuwstelsel en het werkt absoluut niet als mensen niet actief mee’doen’: voelen, volgen, waarnemen, loslaten, etc. Ik zou het liever Feldenkrais individueel ipv passief noemen.  

Feldenkrais onderzoek

Het onderzoek naar de effectiviteit van de Feldenkraismethode staat in de kinderschoenen. Het eerste onderzoek uit 1977 was niet zo hoopgevend. [3] Daar zijn wel veel methodologische verklaringen voor te geven, niet in de laatste plaats dat het effect ervan meten erg moeilijk is. 

De Feldenkrais beweging heeft zijn eigen wetenschappelijke tijdschrift, boeiend op in te neuzen. 

Persoonlijke indruk van een danser

As a ballet dancer I would breathe shallowly, holding my belly tightly and restricting the movement in my ehest and upper back. I had the idea, as many ballet dancers do, that my arms and legs needed to move independently while my chest was held still. Instead, I learned that the many joints of my spine and rih structure (I ean’t bear to use the word "nhcage" anymore!) could make constant fme adjustments if I didn’t try so hard. 

In Feldenkrais lessons, the teaeher does not demonstrate because there is no right or wrong way. While following verbal directions, you explore a smooth and eontinuous sense of moving your way. If you find a way to flow around obsta- cles, as water does, rather than pushing through them, you will reduce wear and tear on your body, and inerease your daneing days. Explore your own inner wisdom and find spon- taneous power with ease. Beeome the artist you have the potential to he.  

(Bron citaat: Feldenkrais: Dancing Like Water, Fluid & Strong. Dance magazine, Volume: 80, Issue: 9 (September 1, 2006), pp: p28)

Interview met ballet instructeur

Boeiend is te lezen wat een ballet-instructeur van Feldenkrais vindt: een interview met als titel: Finding Your Spine: Augusta Moore blends Feldenkrais and ballet. In  Dance Magazine. 

Feldenkrais has a concept calledcross-motivation, where a persois not fully aw
are that they are holding onto the muscles and posture of a previous movementWhen they go to another movement without letting go, the range of motion is limited. For example, you’re in a back bendand your vertebrae are in slightextension. Then you go to do asomersault. This is why people hurt their necks doing somersaults. The back is not helping with the roundness.

En tenslotte de waarde van Feldenkrais voor de danser:

Question: Why would you recommend that dance teachers consider studying the Feldenkrais Method?

Answer: Feldenkrais is a recovery for yourself as a teacher. Teaching is hard on your body. You’re not warmed up and you’re not think- ing of yourself. You just throw yourself up there and do it. And you’ll be less bored. How often do you think, ‘I cannot do anoth- er tendu.’ Practicing Feldenkrais will make you more inventive. Ballet technique is nothing without you, the dancer. You bring it to life. How do you keep your persona! voice and your artistic integrity within the codi- fied technique? That’s what Feldenkrais is for me. It helps me bring ballet to life.  

Het lijkt alsof dansers meer idee hebben van de waarde van Feldenkrais in vergelijking met therapeuten, de bekendheid is nog steeds minimaal, terwijl de waarde ervan bij chronische pijn en bewegingsstoorinissen wel eens groot zou kunnen zijn. 

Beoordeling

De waarde van Feldenkrais  zal men zelf moeten onderzoeken. Feldenkrais krijgt een oranjegroen stoplicht van IOCOB, maar onderzoek naar de effecten van dit soort methoden op een traditionele manier is vrij moeilijk. [4]

Sites

Mooie filmpjes over Feldenkrais

Op Utube staan een hele serie mooie filmpjes over Feldenkrais, gewoon in het zoekvenster ingeven en afspelen! 

Literatuur Feldenkrais

  • Moshe Feldenkrais: Bewustworden door Bewegen. Uitg. De Vrieseborch Haarlem, 1995. ISBN 90-6076-392-
  • Yochanan Rywerant: The Feldenkreis Method, Teaching by Handling;Uitg. Keats Pub. Inc. New Canaan Con. 1983. ISBN 0-87983-554-0
  • Johnson SK A controlled investigation of bodywork in multiple sclerosis.J Alternat Compl Med 1999 ;5():237-243
  • Schaidhammer, Renate Was mir geholfen hat. Keine Operation durch Feldenkrais-Übungen Der Naturarzt <Königstein, Taunus> . 2000;140(5):26
  • Nelson, S. H. Playing with the entire self: the Feldenkrais method and musicians / Nelson, S. H. – 1989. Semin Neurol. 9,2 p. 97-104
  • Nelson, S. H. Playing with the entire self: the Feldenkrais method and musicians.Semin Neurol. 9,2 p. 97-104
  • Olbrich D. Cicholas B. Kern R. Hupfer J. Strottkötter W. Ober M.L. Otte-Unger M. Stellenwert der Feldenkrais-Methode in der stationären psychosomatischen Rehabilitation DRV-Schriften Band 11/98 Seite 476-477 Interdisziplinarität und Vernetzung 7. Rehabilitationswissenschaftliches Kolloquium vom 10. bis 12. März 1997 in Hamburg Tagungsband
  • Laumer, U. Therapeutic effects of the Feldenkrais method (awareness through movement) in eating disorders  Stuttgart, Germany : Georg Thieme Verlag, 1997. Psychother Psychosom Med Psyc. 47,5 p. 170-180

Appendix met veel literatuur uit het grijze circuit

Feldenkrais literatuur alfabetisch per auteur

  1. # Brand, CS. Stress Management in Cardiac Rehabilitation: Observations on Attention and Emotion. Paper presented at The Annual Conference of the Feldenkrais Guild of North America, Los Angeles, CA September, 1998..
  2. # Kendall SA. Ekselius L. Gerdle B. Soren B. Bengtsson A. Feldenkrais intervention in fibromyalgia patients: a pilot study. J Musculoskeletal Pain. 9(4):25-35, 2001. Peer Reviewed.

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of the Feldenkrais intervention, in fibromyalgia patients., Methods: Twenty fibromyalgia patients started Feldenkrais intervention done as one individual and two group sessions weekly for 15 weeks. Nineteen started a group-based pain education program followed by a pool program. Test and self-report questionnaires were administered at the start, at six month follow up, and at the end of intervention., Results: After the Feldenkrais intervention improvement in balance and trends to better lower extremity muscle function were shown, but the improvements were not maintained., Conclusions: No sustained benefit of the Feldenkrais intervention compared to a pool program was seen. Methodological problems are discussed.

  3. # Narula, Meena. Effect of the Six Week Awareness Through Movement Lessons (The Feldenkrais Method) on Selected Functional Movement Parameters in Individuals with Rheumatoid Arthritis (Pilot study using a single subject case study design). MS, Oakland University, Rochester, MI. 1993.
  4. # Phipps A, Lopez R, Powell R (advisor), Lundy-Ekman L (advisor), Maebori D (CFP). A Functional Outcome Study on the Use of Movement Re-Education in Chronic Pain Management. Masters Thesis at Pacific University, School of Physical Therapy, Forest Grove, Oregon, May 1997..
  5. Abenhaim L, Rossignol M, Vaalat J et al. The role of activity in the therapeutic management of back pain: Report of the Paris International Task Force on Back Pain. Spine. 25(4S Suppl.): 1S-33S, 2000.

    (This is an excellent review article that mentions Feldenkrais Method as one of 20 or so approaches to working with back pain. This is not an experimental study)

  6. Batson, G. Effect of Feldenkrais Awareness Through Movement on Balance and Upper Extremity Function in Patients with Chronic Stroke: A Pilot Study. APTA Poster presented at CSM, Nashville, TN, February, 2004.
  7. Bearman D, Shafarman S. Feldenkrais Method in the Treatment of Chronic Pain: A Study of Efficacy and Cost Effectiveness. Am. J. Pain Management. 9 (1): 22-27, 1999. Peer Reviewed.

    A preliminary study was undertaken to determine both the efficacy and cost effectiveness of the Feldenkrais Method for treatment of Medicaid rec
    ipients with chronic pain at the Santa Barbara Regional Health Authority (SBRHA). SBRHA staff wished to offer treatment for chronic pain patients beyond what is provided for in the Medicaid scope of benefits. Conventional intensive chronic pain treatment programs costs range from $7,000 to $30,000 and are not covered by regular Medicaid benefits. Patients with chronic headaches and/or musculoskeletal problems were enrolled in the study. Seven patients began the program; all completed it. Patient satisfaction, function, and perception of pain were evaluated by using the National Pain Data Batik (NPDB) protocol of the American Academy of Pain Management. Participants reported more mobility and decreased perception of pain, both immediately after the program and in a one-year follow-up questionnaire. Results compared quite favorable with NPDB comparison groups. Cost effectiveness calculations were based on Medicaid costs for one-year periods pre- and post-intervention. Patient costs dropped from an average of $141 per month to $82 per month. This represents a 40% savings

  8. Bennett JL, Brown BJ, Finney SA, and Sarantakis CP. Effects of a Feldenkrais Based Mobility Program on Function of a Healthy Elderly Sample.Abstract in Geriatrics, publication of Geriatric section of APTA. Presented at CSM in Boston in February 1998.
  9. Booth B. Back to the balance sheet… body therapy techniques … Rolfing… the Feldenkrais method… applied kinesiology. Nursing Times. 1995 Apr 19-25; 91(16): 44-5. (12 ref). Review Article.

    Continuing our complementary medicine series, Brian Booth looks at three body techniques that aim to restore lost muscular or postural function.

  10. Bost H, Burges S, Russell R, Ruttinger H, Schlafke U. Feldstudie zur wiiksamkeit der Feldenkrais-Methode bei MS – betroffenen. Deutsche Multiple Sklerose Gesellschaft. Saarbrucken, Germany. 1994. (Summary available in English translated by Hans Hartmann, Sc.D.).
  11. Bracciante LE. The body in motion: movement education provides new models for wellness. Body Sense. 2003 Spring; 3(1): 14-6. Review Article.

    F. Matthias Alexander, Moshe Feldenkrais and Milton Trager believed in the mind/body connection. Learn how practitioners from their schools of thought are helping others reshape their lives.

  12. Brown, E and Kegerris S. Electromyographic Activity of Trunk Musculature During a Feldenkrais Awareness through Movement Lesson.Isokinetics and Exercise Science. 1(4): 216-221, 1991. Peer Reviewed.
  13. Bruce, F.M.. Making sense in movement : the dynamics of self-learning and self-change. [Microform Thesis or Dissertation] Kinesiology Publications, University of Oregon Eugene, OR, 2004, 3 microfiche (234 fr.).

    The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between self-generated movement and processes of self-learning and self-change. It is hypothesized that: 1) Moving is a primary mode of interacting with a world that we construct through our interactions; 2) self-moving is a way of knowing, which structures both the knowing self and the perception of personal reality; 3) self-change is a process of self-learning which changes the ways in which the self perceives and interacts with personal reality, the nature of which reality changes in a mutually causal relationship with processes of self-change. This study is a philosophical inquiry in narrative form, informed by my experience as a dancer and a practitioner of The Feldenkrais Method of Somatic Education. Dynamical Systems Theory is employed as a concept-generating metaphor, by means of which personal experience is interwoven with theoretical approaches to cognition as embodied and environmentally embedded. A conceptual structure is developed in which the cognizing self, as a dynamical system, is defined as an environmentally dependent self-organizing, complex of structural change, absent any central controller. The cognitive domain encompasses all the possible functional interactions, where function is taken to comprise moving, sensing, feeling, and thinking. The integrated nature of function stipulates that: 1) Each component of function represents and postulates the others and functions as a whole; 2) all human actions, including processes of abstract thought, are accompanied by distinct patterns of muscular activity. Thus, a change in habitual patterns of movement is reflected in a change in habitual patterns of function, and a change in any other aspect of function is reflected in changes in patterns of movement . The implications for processes of learning and change are discussed, together with potential pedagogical applications. General Note Thesis (Ph.D.) Texas Woman’s University, 2003; includes bibliography (leaves 210-223). Available from Kinesiology Publications (formerly Microform Publications), IIHSP, 1243 University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403-1243

  14. Buchanan PA. Ulrich BD. The Feldenkrais Method: a dynamic approach to changing motor behavior. [Review: Tutorial] Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport. 72(4):315-23, 2001 Dec..

    This tutorial describes the Feldenkrais Method and points to parallels with a dynamic systems theory (DST) approach to motor behavior Feldenkrais is an educational system designed to use movement and perception to foster individualized improvement in function. Moshe Feldenkrais , its originator, believed his method enhanced people’s ability to discover flexible and adaptable behavior and that behaviors are self-organized. Similarly, DST explains that a human-environment system is continually adapting to changing conditions and assembling behaviors accordingly. Despite little research, Feldenkrais is being used with people of widely ranging ages and abilities in varied settings. We propose that DSTprovides an integrated foundation for research on the Feldenkrais Method, suggest research questions, and encourage researchers to test the fundamental tenets of Feldenkrais . [References: 50]

  15. Buchanan, P.A., Ulrich, B.D. Attending to the process of changing behaviour: a reply to Ives’ commentary. [Article] Research quarterly for exercise and sport (Reston, Va.) 74(2), June 2003, 124-126.

    Letter responding to a commentary on "The Feldenkrais Method: a dynamic approach to changing motor behaviour" by Jeffrey C. Ives which is published in the same issue.

  16. Burkhardt S
    L, Nair DG, Burkhardt BA et al. ssessing recovery of hand function from stroke using the Feldenkrais Method: the case of Norman.Poster presented at the Feldenkrais Annual Research Forum, Seattle WA, August, 2004.
  17. Call S, Evans K, Glass M, Gould C, Lowe J, and Stephens J. Awareness Through Movement as a Method of Improving Coordination, Efficiency of Movement and Gait, Fatigue and Quality of Life in Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis. Masters Thesis at Widener University, Institute for Physical Therapy Education, May 1998.
  18. Cheever, Olivia Lowell. Education as Transformation in American Psychiatry: From Voices of Control to Voices of Connection. PhD dissertation in Education, Harvard University, Cambridge MA. 1995 Qualitative.
  19. Chinn J, Trujillo D, Kegerreis S, Worrell T. Effect of a Feldenkrais Intervention on Symptomatic Subjects Performing a Functional Reach. Isokinetics and Exercise Science. 1994, 4(4): 131-136. Peer Reviewed.
  20. Connors K and Grenough P. Redevelopment of the Sense of Self following Stroke, using the Feldenkrais Method. Poster presented at the Feldenkrais Annual Research Forum, Seattle WA, August, 2004.
  21. Cottingham JT and J Maitland. A Three Paradigm Treatment Model Using Soft Tissue Mobilization And Guided Movement Awareness Techniques For A Patient With Chronic Low Back Pain: A Case Study. J Orthopedic Sports Phys Ther. 1997, 26: 155-167. Peer Reviewed.

    Uses Alexander Technique as a guided movement awareness treatment component.

  22. De Rosa C, Porterfield J. A Physical Therapy Model for the Treatment of Low Back Pain. Physical Therapy. 72(4): 261- 272, 1992 Mentions Feldenkrais Method as treatment option.
  23. Dean JR, Yuen SA, and Barrows SA. Effects of A Feldenkrais ATM Sequence on Fibromyalgia Patients. A study reported to the CA-PTA in 1997 also presented at the NA Feldenkrais Guild Conference in August, 1997.

    Reports significant improvements in a small group of 5 patients. No control group.

  24. Deig, Denise. Self Image in Relationship to Feldenkrais Awareness Through Movement Classes. Independent Study Project. University of Indianapolis, Krannert Graduate School of Physical Therapy, Indianapolis, Indiana. 1994.

    Demonstrates changes in self image assesed by clay images, after Awareness through Movement training Qualitative

  25. Dennenberg N and Reeves GD. Changes in Health Locus of Control and Activities of Daily Living in a Physical Therapy Clinic Using the Feldenkrais Method of Sensory Motor Education. Masters thesis for Program in Physical Therapy, Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan. 1995.

    Notes several changes in Health locus of control in the Feldenkrais group. No control group

  26. Dunn PA and Rogers DK. Feldenkrais Sensory Imagery and Forward Reach. Perceptual and Motor Skills. 91:755-57, 2000. Peer Reviewed.

    To investigate the effect of sensory imagery on subsequent movement , a unilateral Fleldenkrais lesson of imaging a soft bristle brush passing over one half of the body and in which no movement occurred, was given to 12 naive subjects. Forward flexion for each side of the body was measured at a sit-and-reach box. For 8 and 10 subjects who reported the perception of a side as being longer and lighter following the sensory imagery, there was also a significant increase in the forward flexion range on that side.

  27. Elgelid HS. Feldenkrais and Body Image. Unpublished Masters Thesis, University of Central Arkansas, Conway, AK, December, 1999.

    This study suggests improvements in body image as measured on the semantic differentiation scale, following ATM lessons, compared to controls receiving tutoring. Four subjects, crossover design. Qualitative

  28. Emerich KA. Nontraditional tools helpful in the treatment of certain types of voice disturbances. [23 refs]. [Journal Article. Review. Review: Tutorial] Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head & Neck Surgery. 11(3):149-53, 2003 Jun..

    Voice therapy has evolved considerably over the past decade. Our field has learned to draw from other disciplines to help facilitate the restoration of vocal function by implementing a more holistic approach and utilizing principles of motor learning to create our therapy programs. Clinicians have learned to recognize that the voice is more than just the larynx. Rather, it is a whole body system, and breakdowns in systems through out the body can be responsible for vocal disturbances. This review will cover the nontraditional approaches that aid in treating certain voice disorders that often are not discussed in textbooks or classrooms. Facilitating techniques include principles from singing and acting voice production, Feldenkrais , Alexander technique, Qigong, and circumlaryngeal massage. Institution: National Center for Voice and Speech, Denver Center for the Performing Arts, 1245 Champa Street, Denver, CO 80204, USA. kemerich@dcpa.org

  29. Euler B. Integration of experience and behavior in physical therapy. Krankengymnastik. 54(1): 28-34, 2002. (In German).
  30. Gilman M, Yaruss JS. Stuttering and relaxation: applications for somatic education in stuttering treatment. J Fluency Disorders. 25(1): 59-76, 2000.Peer Reviewed.
  31. Gilman, Marina.&nbs
    p;Reduction of Tension in Stuttering through Somatic Re-Education. Masters thesis at Northwestern University, Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Evanston, IL. 1997.
  32. Ginsburg C. The Shake-a-Leg Body Awareness Training Program: Dealing with Spinal Injury and Recovery in a New Setting. Somatics. Spring/Summer, 1986 pp31-42.
  33. Ginsburg C. Body-Image, Movement and Consciousness: Examples from a Somatic Practice in the Feldenkrais Method. J. Consciousness Studies. 6(2-3): 79-91, 1999. Qualitative.. Peer Reviewed.

    From the journal abstract) We think of consciousness as a thing. Observation of our experience indicates that we are actually consciousing, and that experiencing is closely related to movement and the muscular sense. The position of this paper is that mind and body are not two entities related to each other but an inseparable whole while functioning. From concrete examples from the Feldenkrais Method, it is shown that changes in the organization of movement and functioning are intimately related and that one cannot change without conscious experience. Implications for the resolution of controversies in the field of consciousness studies and the neurosciences are suggested.

  34. Goldfarb, Lawrence Wm. ARTICULATING CHANGES: Preliminary Notes to a Theory for Feldenkrais. pp159, Feldenkrais Resources, Berkeley, CA. 1990.

    Excellent basic explanation of how Feldenkrais Methods (ATM and Functional Integration) may work

  35. Goldfarb, Lawrence Wm. UNDERSTANDING STANDING. PhD. Dissertation in Kinesiology, University of Illinois at Champaign- Urbana, Illinois, 1994.
  36. Gutman G, Herbert C, Brown S. Feldenkrais vs Conventional Exercise for the Elderly. J Gerontology 32(5): 562-572, 1977. Peer Reviewed.

    Design problem control group which did nothing improved as much as the Feldenkrais group. Does suggest improved preception of quality of life in Feldenkrais group.

  37. Hall SE, Criddle A, Ring A, Bladen C, Tapper J, Yin R, Cosgrove A, Hu Yu-Li. Study of the effects of various forms of exercise on balance in older women. Unpublished Manuscript Healthway Starter Grant, File #7672, Dept of Rehabilitation, Sir Charles Gardner Hospital, Nedlands, Western Australia, 1999.

    Shows improvements in balance and function from Tai Chi and ATM compared to a control group. Good study!

  38. Haller, Jeffrey Scott. Sensorimotor Education and Transpersonal Psychology: Applications of the Feldenkrais Method, Aikido, and Neurolinguistic programming with the St. Joseph’s University Basketball Team. pp.82 PhD. Inst. of Transpersonal Psychology, Menlo Park, CA, Published by Feldenkrais Resources, PO Box 2067, Berkeley, CA 1988. Qualitative.
  39. Hannon JC. The physics of FELDENKRAIS : part 5: unstable equilibrium and its application to movement therapy. [Journal Article: Theory, Pictorial, Tables/Charts] Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies. 2001 Jul; 5(3): 207-21. (38 ref). Peer Reviewed.

    This article, fifth in a series, explores the concept of unstable equilibrium as a form of dynamic repose. This presumes that movement best complies with the Principle of Least Effort when the initial posture incorporates maximal potential energy with minimal inertia. Such action, properly controlled, incorporates strength, dexterity and a quickened reaction time. Also introduced is the idea of reversibility; an attribute, described by Feldenkrais , indicating excellence in motor control. Different forms of gait provide a vehicle for discussion. Exercises and a sitting treatment featuring unstable equilibrium are presented.

  40. Hannon JC. The physics of FELDENKRAIS : part 4: axes, levers, struts and strain. [Journal Article: Theory, Pictorial, Tables/Charts] Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies. 2001 Apr; 5(2): 132-45. (22 ref). Peer Reviewed.

    This installment, the fourth in a series, presents information useful in harnessing the principles of physics to bodywork and movement therapy. It also provides encouragement towards developing skeletal awareness . This ‘felt-sense’ may help bind a better resolution of the spatial relationships of the human locomotor frame. In turn, this conception may assist in applying the Principle of Least Effort to good effect. Gravity, an unseen force of constant direction and intensity, may be another ally in our use of the Principle of Least Effort. An abstraction, the centre of gravity, may be useful in refining our sense of self as we orient and move through space. Leverage is the last concept presented; the fulcrum and common forms of leverage in the body are presented along with the idea of axes of rotation and instantaneous axes of rotation.

  41. Hannon JC. The physics of FELDENKRAIS part 3: stability. [Journal Article: Theory, Pictorial, Tables/Charts] Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies. 2000 Oct; 4(4): 261-72. (15 ref). Peer Reviewed.

    In the last article in this series, we briefly examined the Principle of Least Effort and the five forms of strain. Strain, you may recall, in physics, describes a change in the volume of a material when a force is applied. Our treatments are a blend of rotation and translation movement s of our hands with a changing mix of strains being applied onto the client’s tissues. Harnessing and interweaving the various forms of strain with dexterity may aid us in improving our treatment efficacy. In this tissue, we will consider the importance of anchorage and stability in treatment, We will consider a set of ‘House Rules’ for improving treatment. In addition, we will explore Bernstein’s concept of degrees of freedom.

  42. Hannon JC. The physics of
    FELDENKRAIS . Part 2: no strain, no gain.
     [Journal Article: Theory, Pictorial, Review, Tables/Charts] Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies. 2000 Apr; 4(2): 114-22. (10 ref). Peer Reviewed.

    In the last issue, which was the first of this series, the Principle of Least Effort was introduced. (Use the least effort necessary to achieve the maximum in efficiency). Two sitting self- awareness explorations were presented to help deepen this understanding and to encourage a visceral comprehension of another principle: Control follows awareness . This issue features additional clinical examples and an explanation of several terms of art in bodywork: stress, strain, translation and rotation. These words help to stake out the territory of bodywork. There are only five forms of strain and only two basic movement s in any form of bodywork. We shall see the practical advantages of understanding the concepts these words carry. Clinical results may be enhanced with improved physical safety to both the therapist and client. Secondly, a sure grasp of the technical meanings of these words is essential for delving further into the treatment applications of the Principle of Least Effort.

  43. Hopper C, Kolt GS, McConville JC. The effects of Feldenkrais Awareness Through Movement on hamstring length, flexibility and perceived exertion. J Bodywork Movement Therapies 3(4): 238-247, 1999. Peer Reviewed.

    Although the Feldenkrais Method is rapidly gaining popularity among health professionals, only a small body of empirical research has documented its efficacy. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of the Feldenkrais Method on flexibility, perceived exertion and hamstring length. In Study 1, 79 healthy participants undertook measurements of flexibility (sit and reach test), perceived exertion (Borg’s Rating of Perceived Exertion 6-20) and hamstring length (active knee extension test) prior to being randomly allocated into a Feldenkrais or control group. The same measurements were taken after the group intervention (a Feldenkrais Awareness Through Movement lesson, or control procedure). Although the Feldenkrais participants improved significantly more in sit and reach measurements than their control counterparts, no differences between the groups were found for measures of perceived exertion or hamstring length. In Study 2, a subsample of 39 participants took part in a further three intervention sessions with the three measures being take again prior to and after the fourth (final) intervention. No group differences were found for any of the outcome indicators across time. These findings are discussed in terms of implications for further research and health care practice.

  44. Huntley A, Ernst E. Complementary and alternative therapies for treating multiple sclerosis symptoms: a systematic review. [Journal Article: Systematic Review, Tables/Charts] Complementary Therapies in Medicine. 2000 Jun; 8(2): 97-105. (42 ref). Peer Reviewed.

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease of the central nervous system without a known cure. Thus the role of complementary and alternative therapies (CATs) for the management of symptoms lies in palliative care and this is borne out by the popularity of these treatments amongst MS sufferers.This review is aimed at determining whether this use is supported by evidence of effectiveness from rigorous clinical trials. Database literature searches were performed and papers were extracted in a pre-defined manner. Twelve randomized controlled trials were located that investigated a CAT for MS: nutritional therapy (4), massage (1), Feldenkrais bodywork (1), reflexology (1), magnetic field therapy (2), neural therapy (1) and psychological counselling (2).The evidence is not compelling for any of these therapies, with many trials suffering from significant methodological flaws. There is evidence to suggest some benefit of nutritional therapy for the physical symptoms of MS. Magnetic field therapy and neural therapy appear to have a short-term beneficial effect on the physical symptoms of MS. Massage/bodywork and psychological counselling seem to improve depression, anxiety and self-esteem. The effectiveness for other CATs is unproven at this time. In all the CATs examined further investigations are needed in the form of rigorous large-scale trials.

  45. Hutchinson, Marcia G. TRANSFORMING BODY IMAGE. Learning to Love the Body You Have. The Crossing Press. Freedom CA 95019, 1985 Developed from doctoral dissertation: "The effect of a treatment based on the use of guided visuo-kinesthetic imagery on the alteration of negative body cathexis in women" . Boston University, 1981. Qualitative.
  46. Ideberg G and Werner M. Gait Assessment by Three Dimensional Motion Analysis in Subjects with Chronic Low Back Pain Treated According to Feldenkrais Principles. An exploratory study.. Unpublished Manuscript, Lund University, Department of Physical Therapy, Lund, Sweden, 1995..
  47. Irani SF, Lebonette LS, Morley JD, Pankowski KM, Pell KL, and Stephens J. Awareness Through Movement: An Intervention Strategy for Improving Coordination and Economy of Movement in a Group of Well Elderly People. Masters Thesis at Widener University, Institute for Physical Therapy Education, May 1998.
  48. Ives JC. Comments on "the Feldenkrais Method: a dynamic approach to changing motor behavior".[comment]. [Review] [60 refs]. [Comment. Journal Article. Review. Review: Tutorial] Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport. 74(2):116-23; discussion 124-6, 2003 Jun. Peer Reviewed.

    The Feldenkrais Method has recently been discussed to fit within a dynamic systems model of human movement . One basis for this discussion is that small changes in one system–for example, enhanced body awareness –has far reaching implications across the whole of human performance. An alternative view on the Feldenkrais Method is argued here. It is argued that the clinical data do not support the Feldenkrais Method as being an effective way to improve motor performance. Further, it is argued that positive outcomes in pain and other wellness measures following Feldenkrais interventions can be ascribed to self-regulation. As part of this discussion, the role of body awareness, attentional focus, and kinesthesia in motor leaning and control are explored.

  49. Ives JC, Shelley GA. The Feldenkrais Method in Rehabilitation: a review. WORK: A Journal of Prevention, Asessment and Rehabilitation. 11: 75-90. 1998. This article contains a listing of many unpublished pieces of research whic
    h are not listed in other places. Peer Reviewed.

    Musculoskeletal disorders are often suggested to be caused, in part, by poor postural behaviors that are associated with occupational demands. The inefficacy of conventional strategies to elicit postural correction has prompted many to seek alternative techniques such as the Feldenkrais Method[R]. The rapidly growing use of the Feldenkrais Method[R] by laypersons and professionals has been fueled by extravagant claims and data published in non-peer-reviewed sources, for the effectiveness of this technique has been poorly documented in peer-reviewed publications. Therefore the purpose of this review was to critically assess the literature on the Feldenkrais Method[R] in both juried and non-juried sources. The results have generally indicated some improvement with Feldenkrais [R] interventions, however, these improvements are not nearly as large as suggested by the anecdotal claims. Unfortunately, most of the juried and non-juried findings and conclusions are questionable due to inadequately controlled studies and other serious methodological problems. As such, determination of the effectiveness of the Feldenkrais Method[R] based on the literature is difficult at best, and the only justifiable conclusion is that more study is warranted.

  50. Jackel, B. Aspekte psychomotorischer Arbeit nach Feldenkrais in der Grundschule. (Aspects of psychomotor work in accordance with Feldenkrais in elementary school.) [German]. [Article] Praxis der Psychomotorik (Dortmund) 27(3), Aug 2002, 161-166. Total No. of Pages: 6.

    Outlines the basic theories of Moshe Feldenkrais , including the concept of "effortless self-organization" and the concept of movement as a medium for self-development, in so far as it influences the sensory, emotional, social, cognitive and linguistic aspects of the person. Describes the process of becoming conscious of self through movement , the path from harmonious movement to perception and feeling, and the importance of breathing as a support to movement . Outlines the application of two aspects of the Feldenkrais method, ATM ( Awareness through Movement ) and FI (Functional Integration). Demonstrates how the Feldenkrais method can be applied in an elementary school setting.

  51. Jackson, O. The Feldenkrais Method: A personalized learning model. Contemporary Management of Motor Control Problems. Proceedings of the II Step Conference (ed. Marilyn Lister- APTA), Foundation for Physical Therapy, p131-135. 1991.
  52. Jackson-Wyatt O, Gula D, Kireta A, Steeves M. Effects of Feldenkrais Practitioner Training Program on Motor Ability: a videoanalysis. Physical Therapy 72: (suppl.) S86, 1992.
  53. Jain S. Janssen K. DeCelle S. Alexander technique and Feldenkrais method: a critical overview. [Review] [18 refs]. [Journal Article. Review. Review: Tutorial] Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation Clinics of North America. 15(4):811-25, vi, 2004 Nov.. Peer Reviewed.

    This article develops an overall better understanding of the Alexander technique and Feldenkrais method. Initially, a brief history is provided to lay the groundwork for the development of these techniques. A description of the techniques, training requirements, and mechanism of action follows. Indications, contraindications, and patient selection are discussed. This article reviews and identifies what research has been completed and what areas need further investigation. Overall, the goal is to establish a guide to aid in determining who may benefit from these techniques and outcomes to expect when using these techniques.

  54. James ML, Kolt GS, HopperC, McConville JC, Bate P. The effects of a Feldenkrais program and relaxation procedures on hamstring length. Australian J Physiother 44: 49-54, 1998. Peer Reviewed.

    Despite the growing popularity of the Feldenkrais method in Australia (Wildman 1990b), little research is available investigating its efficacy. The current study investigated the effects of the Feldenkrais method on hamstring length. Forty-eight healthy undergraduate participants were randomly allocated into either Feldenkrais , relaxation, or control groups. All subjects had their right hamstring measured using a modified active knee extension test prior to the first session, prior to the fourth (final) session, and after the final session of intervention. Two-way analysis of variance with time of measurement repeated revealed no significant differences between the groups. The findings are discussed in relation to apparent ineffectiveness of the Feldenkrais awareness through movement lessons used on hamstring length, exposure time to the technique, and attitudes towards the Feldenkrais method.

  55. Johnson SK, Frederick J, Kaufman M, Mountjoy B. A controlled investigation of bodywork in multiple sclerosis. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 5(3): 237-43, 1999. Results show lower perceived stress after Feldenkrais sessions compared to a sham intervention control group.Peer Reviewed.
  56. Junker J. Oberwittler C. Jackson D. Berger K. Utilization and perceived effectiveness of complementary and alternative medicine in patients with dystonia. [Journal Article] Movement Disorders. 19(2):158-61, 2004 Feb. Peer Reviewed.

    The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is increasing worldwide, especially by patients with chronic diseases. To date, no data are available about utilization and perceived effectiveness of CAM in patients with dystonia. A questionnaire survey on utilization and costs of CAM was completed by 180 members of the German Dystonia Society, a patient advocate group. In total, 131 dystonia patients (73%) were current or former users of CAM, 55 patients used CAM in addition to botulinum toxin A injections, and 86 patients had experience with three or more CAM methods. The options used most widely were acupuncture (56%), relaxation techniques (44%), homeopathy (27%), and massages (26%). Among users of specific CAM methods, breathing therapy, Feldenkrais , massages, and relaxation techniques were perceived as most effective. On average, patients spent 1,513 Euro on CAM without reimbursement. There was no correlation between costs and perceived effectiveness of different methods. In line with other studies on chronically ill patients, our results show that dystonia patients frequently utilize CAM method
    s, often in addition to conventional treatment. There is a growing need to evaluate scientifically the effect of CAM methods on symptom severity and quality of life in dystonia, to prevent utilization of costly and ineffective CAM treatments.

  57. Kerr GA. Kotynia F. Kolt GS. FELDENKRAIS awareness through movement and state anxiety. [Journal Article: Research, Tables/Charts] Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies. 2002 Apr; 6(2): 102-7. (30 ref). Peer Reviewed.

    The ability of the FELDENKRAIS Method to reduce state anxiety was investigated. Specifically, both a single FELDENKRAIS Awareness Through Movement lesson and a 10-week FELDENKRAIS Awareness Through Movement programme were studied. Participants volunteered to take part in one 1-hour class each week for 10 weeks. Individuals who declined to participate in the 10-week programme were given the opportunity to participate in a single 1-hour lesson during week 5. Participants were divided into two groups: new and returning students, based on previous experience with Awareness Through Movement lessons. Participants were administered the state scale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Spielberger et al. 1983) prior to the beginning of the first lesson (week 1–T1), immediately before and after the fifth lesson (week 5–T2 and T3), and after the final lesson (week 10–T4). Findings indicated that state anxiety scores decreased significantly over a single lesson (T2 T3) for both new (n=13) and returning (n=42) students. In addition, state anxiety scores were significantly lower after the 10-week programme (T4) when compared with baseline scores (T1) for new (n=3) and returning (n=42) students, with new students experiencing a significantly greater reduction than returning students. These findings can be interpreted as further support for the efficacy of the FELDENKRAIS Method in reducing state anxiety.

  58. Kolt GS. McConville JC. The effects of a FELDENKRAIS Awareness Through Movement program on state anxiety. [Journal Article: Research, Tables/Charts] Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies. 2000 Jul; 4(3): 216-20. (34 ref). Peer Reviewed.

    The effects of a FELDENKRAIS Awareness Through Movement program and relaxation procedures were assessed on a volunteer sample of 54 undergraduate physiotherapy students over a 2-week period. Participants were randomly allocated into a FELDENKRAIS METHOD group, a relaxation group, or a no-treatment (control) group, and state anxiety was measured using the Composed-Anxious scale of the Profile of Mood States-Bipolar Form (Lorr & McNair 1982) on four occasions: prior to the first intervention, prior to the fourth intervention, on completion of the fourth intervention, and one day after the fourth intervention. Analysis of variance showed that anxiety scores for all groups varied significantly over time and, specifically, that participants reported lower scores at the completion of the fourth intervention. Further, compared to the control group, females in the FELDENKRAIS and relaxation groups reported significantly lower anxiety scores on completion of the fourth session (compared to immediately prior to the fourth session), and this reduction was maintained one day later. These findings can be interpreted as preliminary evidence of the efficacy of the FELDENKRAIS METHOD and relaxation procedures in reducing anxiety.

  59. Lake, Bernard. Acute Back Pain: Treatment by the Application of Feldenkrais Principles. Australian Family Physician, vol. 14, no.11, 1985.
  60. Lake, Bernard. Photoanalysis of Standing Posture in Controls and Low Back Pain: Effects of Kinesthetic Processing (Feldenkrais Method) in Posture and Gait: Control Mechanisms VII. eds. M Woollocott and F Horak, U of Oregon Press, 1992, pp 400- 403.
  61. Laumer U, Bauer M, Fichter M, Milz H. Therapeutic Effects of Feldenkrais Method Awareness Through Movement in Patients with Eating Disorders. Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol 47(5): 170-180, 1997 English abstract only (Published in German). Peer Reviewed.
  62. Lowe, Bernd; Breining, Katja; Wilke, Stefanie; Wellmann, Renate; Zipfel, Stephan; Eich, Wolfgang. Quantitative and qualitative effects of Feldenkrais , progressive muscle relaxation, and standard medical treatment in patients after acute myocardial infarction. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Psychotherapy Research. Vol 12(2) Sum 2002, 179-191. Peer Reviewed.

    Examined the effectiveness of the Feldenkrais method of functional integration and of progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) compared with the standard medical treatment during the acute phase after myocardial infarction. Three patient groups (20 in each) received 1 of 3 treatment options: 2 sessions of Feldenkrais therapy, 2 sessions of PMR, or no intervention. Evaluations using quantitative and qualitative methods were performed an average of 3.7 and 7.8 days after Ss’ myocardial infarction, respectively. Significant improvements, independent of the intervention, were found over the evaluation period in the Perception of Body Dynamics body image scale and in the Physical Well-Being and Emotional Well-Being quality-of-life scales. A statistically significant, differential effect of any one intervention with respect to the control group did not arise in any of the quantitative questionnaire variables examined. However, subjective improvements of varying description were noted by 17 of 20 patients after the 1st Feldenkrais therapy and by 13 of 20 patients after the 1st PMR treatment. The qualitative patient statements support using the Feldenkrais method or PMR for particular cases in an acute medical setting and continuing treatment during rehabilitation or on an outpatient basis.

  63. Lundblad I. Elert J. Gerdle B. Randomized controlled trial of physiotherapy and Feldenkrais interventions in female workers with neck-shoulder complaints. [Journal Article: Clinical Trial] Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation. 1999 Sep; 9(3): 179-94. (46 ref). Peer Reviewed.

    The present study aimed to investigate whether physiotherapy or Feldenkrais interventions resulted in a reduction of complaints from the neck and shoulders (prevalence, pain intensity, sick leave, and disability in leisure and work roles) in 97 female industrial workers (not on long-term sick leave). Range of motion of neck and shoulders, VO2, endurance score (i.e., summation of pain intensity ratings during a static shoulder flexion), cortical control according to the Feldenkrais methodology, and physiological capacity according to a dynamic endu
    rance test of the shoulder flexors with simultaneous surface EMG were also recorded. The workers were randomized to: (1) physiotherapy group (PT-group; treatment according to the ergonomic program of the PTs of the occupational health care service), (2) Feldenkrais group (F-group; education according to the Feldenkrais methodology), or (3) control group (C-group; no intervention). Pre- and post-tests were made at one-year intervals. The two interventions lasted 16 weeks during paid working time. The F-group showed significant decreases in complaints from neck and shoulders and in disability during leisure time. The two other groups showed no change (PT-group) or worsening of complaints (C-group). The present study showed significant positive changes in complaints after the Feldenkrais intervention but not after the physiotherapy intervention. Possible mechanisms behind the effects in the F-group are discussed.

  64. Lusky BW. Devlin K. Alternative therapies in the treatment of upper extremity dysfunction. [Journal Article: Case Study] Orthopaedic Physical Therapy Clinics of North America. 2001 Dec; 10(4): 667-79. (17 ref). Peer Reviewed.

    This article describes the use of alternative therapies to treat patients with orthopaedic upper extremity injuries. Numerous alternative therapies might be considered for treatment; this article discusses the approaches most widely used and scientifically documented, including acupuncture, craniosacral therapy, and Feldenkrais , all of which have in common a general philosophy of enhancing the natural healing system to improve function and decrease pain.

  65. Lyttle TSK. The Feldenkrais Method: application, practice and principles. J Bodywork Movement Ther. 1(5):262-9, 1997. Peer Reviewed.
  66. Maher CG. Effective physical treatment for chronic low back pain. [Review] [52 refs]. [Journal Article. Review. Review: Tutorial] Orthopedic Clinics of North America. 35(1):57-64, 2004 Jan. Peer Reviewed.

    It is now feasible to adopt an evidence-based approach when providing physical treatment for patients with chronic LBP. A summary of the efficacy of a range of physical treatments is provided in Table 1. The evidence-based primary care options are exercise, laser, massage, and spinal manipulation; however, the latter three have small or transient effects that limit their value as therapies for chronic LBP. In contrast, exercise produces large reductions in pain and disability, a feature that suggests that exercise should play a major role in the management of chronic LBP. Physical treatments, such as acupuncture, backschool, hydrotherapy, lumbar supports, magnets, TENS, traction, ultrasound, Pilates therapy, Feldenkrais therapy, Alexander technique, and craniosacral therapy are either of unknown value or ineffective and so should not be considered. Outside of primary care, multidisciplinary treatment or functional restoration is effective; however, the high cost probably means that these programs should be reserved for patients who do not respond to cheaper treatment options for chronic LBP. Although there are now effective treatment options for chronic LBP, it needs to be acknowledged that the problem of chronic LBP is far from solved. Though treatments can provide marked improvements in the patient’s condition, the available evidence suggests that the typical chronic LBP patient is left with some residual pain and disability. Developing new, more powerful treatments and refining the current group of known effective treatments is the challenge for the future.

  67. Malmgren-Olsson E. Armelius B. Armelius K. A comparative outcome study of body awareness therapy, Feldenkrais , and conventional physiotherapy for patients with nonspecific musculoskeletal disorders: changes in psychological symptoms, pain, and self-image. [Journal Article: Research, Tables/Charts] Physiotherapy Theory and Practice. 2001 Jun; 17(2): 77-95. (55 ref). Peer Reviewed.

    Patients with nonspecific musculoskeletal disorders are often remitted for physiotherapy treatment in primary care. The rehabilitation effects for this patient group are generally poor and many of the treatment methods used have not been scientifically evaluated. The purpose of this study is to compare treatment effects of Body Awareness Therapy, Feldenkrais , and conventional individual treatment with respect to changes in psychological distress, pain, and self-image in patients with nonspecific musculoskeletal disorders. A total of 78 patients, 64 females and 14 males, with nonspecific musculoskeletal disorders were recruited consecutively to the different treatment groups in a quasiexperimental design. The patients were measured three times during the study period: before the interventions, after six months, and after one year. The results showed significant positive changes over time in all three treatment groups with regard to reduced psychological distress, pain, and improved negative self-image. There were few significant differences among the groups but effect-size analysis indicated that the group treatments using Body Awareness Therapy and Feldenkrais might be more effective than conventional treatment.

  68. Malmgren-Olsson EB. Branholm IB. A comparison between three physiotherapy approaches with regard to health-related factors in patients with non-specific musculoskeletal disorders. [Journal Article] Disability & Rehabilitation. 24(6):308-17, 2002 Apr 15. Peer Reviewed.

    PURPOSE: The main aim of this study was to compare the effects of Body Awareness Therapy (BAT), the Feldenkrais (FK) method and conventional physiotherapy on changes of health-related quality of life (HRQL), self-efficacy and sense of coherence (SOC) in patients with non-specific musculoskeletal disorders. A second aim was to explore the relationships between SOC, HRQL and self-efficacy and to examine whether SOC could be a predictor of the treatment outcome. METHOD: A total of 78 patients, 64 women and 14 men, were recruited consecutively to the three treatment groups. The instrument used were the Swedish version of SF-36, the 20 items Arthritis Self-efficacy Scale and the 29-item questionnaire by Antonovsky. RESULTS: The results showed that there were significant improvements on all subscales of SF-36 except for one. By using effect-size values it was found that the BAT and FK groups reached larger effect-size than did the conventional therapy group. These two groups also improved in self-efficacy of pain and stayed stable while the third group deteriorated at the one-year follow-up. There were significant correlations between the mental dimensions of SF-36 and SOC indicating that the instruments may measure aspects of the same global const
    ruct. CONCLUSIONS: Although few significant differences between the three treatment groups the BAT and FK seemed to improve health-related quality of life and self-efficacy of pain to a somewhat higher degree than the conventional physiotherapy. SOC seemed to be a stable trait measure over time.

  69. Narula M, Jackson O, Kulig K. The Effects of Six Week Feldenkrais Method on Selected Functional Parameters in a Subject with Rheumatoid Arthritis. Physical Therapy 72: (suppl.) S86,1992.
  70. Netz Y. Lidor R. Mood alterations in mindful versus aerobic exercise modes. [Journal Article] Journal of Psychology. 137(5):405-19, 2003 Sep. Peer Reviewed.

    The results of most recent studies have generally indicated an improvement in mood after participation in aerobic exercise. However, only a few researchers have compared mindful modes of exercise with aerobic exercise to examine the effect of 1 single session of exercise on mood. In the present study, the authors assessed state anxiety, depressive mood, and subjective well-being prior to and following 1 class of 1 of 4 exercise modes: yoga, Feldenkrais (awareness through movement ), aerobic dance, and swimming; a computer class served as a control. Participants were 147 female general curriculum and physical education teachers (mean age = 40.15, SD = 0.2) voluntarily enrolled in a 1-year enrichment program at a physical education college. Analyses of variance for repeated measures revealed mood improvement following Feldenkrais , swimming, and yoga but not following aerobic dance and computer lessons. Mindful low-exertion activities as well as aerobic activities enhanced mood in 1 single session of exercise. The authors suggest that more studies assessing the mood-enhancing benefits of mindful activities such as Feldenkrais and yoga are needed.

  71. Niethammer U. Silent dialogue with the body — the Feldenkrais view of touching [German]. [Journal Article: Pictorial] Krankengymnastik: Zeitschrift fur Physiotherapeuten. 2003; 55(12): 2134-6, 2138-40. (5 ref).

    Man is a holistic system: thinking, feeling, and acting are interactive elements of life. It follows that when I touch a person, I touch not only his body, but I also move and touch his mind and his soul. Using this as a given, and assuming the human concept of the Feldenkrais method, namely that man is a self-regulating system, with a lifelong capacity to learn, we describe the essential aspects of touching. What posture should I assume? Where do I begin to make initial contact? What are the elements of having a "silent dialogue"? In concluding, we make clear that this form of touching can only succeed in making the patient feel accepted if extreme care and sensitivity is applied.

  72. O’Connor M. Webb R. Learning to rest when in pain. [Journal Article: Pictorial, Research] European Journal of Palliative Care. 2002 Mar-Apr; 9(2): 68-71. (18 ref).

    Margaret O’Connor and Robert Webb report on the usage of a lesser-known approach — the Feldenkrais Method — in teaching people to cope with pain on movement.

  73. Ofir R. A heuristic investigation of the process of motor learning using Feldenkrais method in physical rehabilitation of two young women with traumatic brain injury. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Union Institute, NY, 1993. Brief abstract only. Documents improvements with Feldenkrais intervention. Videotape supports text. Qualitative.
  74. Panarello-Black D. PT’s Own Back Pain Leads Her to Start Feldenkrais Training. PT Bulletin. April 8, 1992, pp 9.
  75. Pendergast C, Roller BA, Weiskittel RS and Stephens J. Awareness through Movement as a Strategy for Improving Coordination and Economy of Movement in Older Adults. Masters Thesis at Widener University, Institute for Physical Therapy Education, May 1997.
  76. Polsgrove, M.J. Changes in height and postural stability using the Feldenkrais Method. [Microform Thesis or Dissertation ] Microform Publications, University of Oregon Eugene, OR, 2002.

    18 women (l8-45 years) served as subjects for either the experimental group or control group. Individuals participated in a series of exercises designed for either the experimental or control group. The experimental group participated in a series of Feldenkrais Method(TM) exercises, while the control group participated in a series of related stretching exercise. Exposure to each condition took place over a four-week period, meeting two times a week for 35 to 45 minutes, for a total of eight sessions. Values of height and postural stability were gained from the sensor information of designated marker sites. A multiple regression analysis was used to assess the effects of group training, pre- and post-participation. Results from this analysis showed that no significant difference in height and postural stability existed between the Feldenkrais Method(TM) group and the stretching group. These results did, however, reveal superiority in the amplitude during medial-lateral sway in subjects who received Feldenkrais Method(TM) over those who underwent stretching exercises. Additionally, the frequency during medial-lateral sway, and for the interaction values for frequency during medial-lateral and anterior-posterior sway, revealed significant differences for the within group analysis.

  77. Ruth S, Kegerreis S. Facilitating Cervical Flexion Using a Feldenkrais Method: Awareness Through Movement. J Sports Phys Ther.16(1): 25-29, 1992. Peer Reviewed.
  78. Ryding C. Rudebeck CE. Mattsson B. Body awareness in movement and language: concordance and disparity. [Journal Article: Research] Advances in Physiotherapy. 2004; 6(4): 158-65. (18 ref). Peer Reviewed.

    Background and purpose: Body Awareness Scale-Health (BAS-H) is a physiotherapy scoring instrument that assesses the quality and harmony in posture and simple movement s. In the present work, we have studied the concordance between body awareness scores and described body experience to further refine the concept of body awareness . Method: Sixteen general practitioners were assessed according to BAS-H and interviewed using a semi-structured method concerning their own body experience in relation to three themes. The interviews for the five participants who wer
    e found to have the most well-developed body awareness were compared, with the five that had the least developed body awareness . Results: The participants in the group with well-developed body awareness described a more positive attitude towards the body, and they gave clearer descriptions about their experiences of emotions and conditions such as hunger and tiredness. However, there were important exceptions. Body awareness has two dimensions-an outward/expressive dimension that is expressed in posture and movement and an inward/introspective dimension. Summary hypotheses: The study was summarized in several hypotheses concerning the relationship between expressive and introspective body awareness.

  79. Saraswati, S. Investigation of Human Postural Muscles and Respiratory Movements. M.Sc. University of New South Wales. 1989.
  80. Seegert EM. Shapiro R. From the field. Effects of alternative exercise on posture. [Journal Article: Research, Tables/Charts] Clinical Kinesiology: Journal of the American Kinesiotherapy Association. 1999 Summer; 53(2): 41-7. (20 ref). Peer Reviewed.

    This investigation examined the effects of neuromuscular reeducation exercises on the standing posture of 25 collegeage students. The Portland State University Posture Analysis Form (PSU PAF), a force platform, and a tape measure were used to measure postural alignment, postural sway, and height before and after treatment sessions. Subjects completed a subjective questionnaire. Controls rested in supine posture during the treatment session, while the exercise group performed selected Feldenkrais and psychophysical re-education exercises. Dependent t-tests were used to determine differences between the pre tests and post tests. Both groups showed decreases in all sway variables, for both eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) conditions, improved alignment of body parts, and increased height. Only the exercise group showed statistically significant sway changes. Only exercise group subjects reported feeling more efficient after the treatment session. Both groups reported increased tightness and discomfort of various body parts after treatment. The data suggest that the supine positioning is responsible for some changes. The postural sway results and the rate of height increase suggest that the exercises may also have independent effects.

  81. Shelhav-Silberbush, Chava. The Feldenkrais Method for Children with Cerebral Palsy. pp116. MS Thesis. Boston University School of Education, Feldenkrais Resources, Berkeley CA,1988.
  82. Shelhav-Silberbush, Chava. Movement and Learning: The Feldenkrais Method as a Learning Model. PhD Dissertation, Faculty of Sociology and Behavioral Science. Heidelberg University, Germany. 1998. Not yet reprinted or translated into English. Published in German. Controlled study with a group of learning disabled children in Germany.
  83. Shenkman M, Butler R. A Model for Multisystem Evaluation, Interpretation, and Treatment of Individuals with Neurologic Dysfunction. Physical Therapy. 69(7) 538-547, 1989 Mentions Feldenkrais Method as a good treatment option. Peer Reviewed.
  84. Shenkman M, Donovan J, Tsubota J, Kluss M, Stebbins P, Butler R. Management of Individuals with Parkinsons Disease: Rationale and Case Studies.Physical Therapy 69: 944-955, 1989 Mentions Feldenkrais Method as treatment option. Peer Reviewed.
  85. Smith AL. Kolt GS. McConville JC. The effect of the Feldenkrais method on pain and anxiety in people experiencing chronic low back pain. [Journal Article: Research, Tables/Charts] New Zealand Journal of Physiotherapy. 2001 Mar; 29(1): 6-14. (54 ref). Peer Reviewed.

    The aim of this pilot investigation was to evaluate the Feldenkrais Method’s effect on pain and state anxiety in people experiencing chronic low back pain. Participants (N = 26) were aged between 25 and 78 years, and were recruited from a community health centre, a rehabilitation hospital, and from the general community. The sample was divided into two groups: Feldenkrais and control. The Feldenkrais group experienced a 30-minute Awareness Through Movement session whilst the control group listened to a narrative of the same duration. Pain was assessed pre and post intervention using the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire. State anxiety was also measured pre and post intervention using the State Scale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Multivariate Analyses of Variance showed that the Feldenkrais intervention was effective in reducing the affective dimension of pain (p < .05), but not the sensory or evaluative dimensions, nor state anxiety. These findings are discussed in relation to previous research and some of the theoretical concepts assumed to underlie the Feldenkrais Method. The clinical implication of the findings involves the potential for the Feldenkrais Method to complement existing modes of pain management for people experiencing chronic low back problems.

  86. Spire M. The Feldenkrais Method: An Interview with Anat Baniel. Medical Problems of Performing Artists. Dec. 1989, pp. 159-62 Describes the effectiveness of Feldenkrais method with musicians performing in pain.
  87. Steisel, Stephan G. The Clients Experience of the Psychological Elements in Functional Integration. Ph.D. Massachusetts School of Professional Psychology. University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, MI 1993 Qualitative.
  88. Stephens J. Feldenkrais method: background, research, and orthopaedic case studies. [Journal Article: Case Study, Tables/Charts] Orthopaedic Physical Therapy Clinics of North America. 2000 Sep; 9(3): 375-94. (46 ref). Peer Reviewed.

    Functional Integration and Awareness Through Movement are aspects of the Feldenkrais method that have been used successfully in the rehabilitation of people with orthopaedic problems. These methods include approaches to motor learning that can be used to facilitate change and integration in postural and general musculoskeletal control. This article describes the background and development of the Feldenkrais method, including its philosophic and scientific basis. An outcome survey of the use of the Feldenkrais method is presented along with four case studies that demonstrate the integration of this method into physical therapy practice. The Feldenkrais method is an excellent approach to use in the rehabilitation of people with orthopaedic physical problems.

  89. Stephens J, Davidson JA, DeRosa JT, Kriz ME, Saltzman NA. Effects of Awareness Through Movement, a motor learning strategy, on hamstring length. Unpublished Masters thesis from Widener University, Institute for Physical Therapy Education. Presented as a poster at APTA Research Conference, Indianapolis, IN, June 2000. Documents significant increase in hamstring length compared to control group after 3 weeks of ATM intervention..
  90. Stephens J, Miller TH. Feldenkrais Method: Learning to move through your life with grace and ease. (Or optimizing your potential for living.) Chapter in Davis C. (Ed.), Complimentary Therapies in Rehabilitation: Evidence for Efficacy, Prevention and Wellness. Chapter in Davis C. (Ed.), Complimentary Therapies in Rehabilitation: Evidence for Efficacy, Prevention and Wellness. Slack Publishers, February 2004..

    Review chapter which includes discussion of cases in which Awareness Through Movement and Functional Integration were used. Review of research available through 2003.

  91. Stephens J. Call S. Evans K. Glass M. Gould C. Lowe J. Responses to ten Feldenkrais awareness through movement lessons by four women with multiple sclerosis: improved quality of life. [Journal Article: Research, Tables/Charts] Physical Therapy Case Reports. 1999 Mar; 2(2): 58-69. (43 ref).Peer Reviewed.

    Four women with multiple sclerosis who were ambulatory and worked full-time participated in 10 Awareness Through Movement classes over 10 weeks. Assessment before and after the series of classes included the Incapacity Status and the Environmental Status Scales of the Minimal Record of Disability, the Fatigue Severity Scale, and the Index of Well-Being. Before each class and at the final data collection, each person was asked several questions about her medical and functional status. Analyses of walking and supine-to-stand were done using the PEAK Motus video motion analysis system. A follow-up interview was done with two women one year after the classes ended. Three of the four participants experienced an increase in symptoms at some time during the 10 weeks; nonetheless, all made improvements. Outcomes show that two broad areas of improvement were ease and steadiness of daily movement s, and sense of well-being. These Outcomes suggest that Awareness Through Movement is beneficial for some people with multiple sclerosis, although in different ways for each person.

  92. Stephens J. DuShuttle D. Hatcher C. Shmunes J. Slaninka C. Use of awareness through movement improves balance and balance confidence in people with multiple sclerosis: a randomized controlled study. [Journal Article, Clinical Trial, Research, Tables/Charts] Neurology Report. 2001 Jun; 25(2): 39-49. (33 ref). Peer Reviewed.

    This study examined the effectiveness of a structured, group motor learning process, Awareness Through Movement (ATM), on balance, balance confidence, and self-efficacy. Twelve people with multiple sclerosis were randomly assigned to either ATM or control groups. The ATM group participated in 8 classes, 2 to 4 hours each while the control group participated in educational sessions, over 10 weeks. Six outcome measures were used: the Basic Balance Master modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction in Balance (mCTSIB) and Limits of Stability tests; the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale; prospective falls; Equiscale; and the Multiple Sclerosis Self-Efficacy Scale. The ATM group exhibited significantly improved mCTSIB scores indicating an average center of pressure position closer to theoretical center, had significantly fewer abnormal mCTSIB tests, and demonstrated improved balance confidence compared to controls. There was a trend toward improvement in all other measures in the ATM group compared to controls. These results suggest that this type of motor learning intervention can be effective in improving a variety of physical and psychological parameters related to balance and postural control.

  93. Stephens JL, C Pendergast, BA Roller, and RS Weiskittel. Changes in Coordination, Economy of Movement and Well Being Resulting from a 2-Day workshop in Awareness through Movement. presentation at APTA, Combined Sections Meeting, Boston, MA, February 1998.
  94. Stephens JL, Call S, Evans K, Glass M, Gould C and Lowe J. Awareness Through Movement as a Method of Improving Function and Quality of Life in Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis. Abstract of poster presentation at APTA, Combined Sections Meeting, Seattle WA, February 1999. Multiple case study of 4 individuals. Outcomes for 10 weekly classes of ATM..
  95. Stephens JL, Cates P, Jentes E, Perich A, Silverstein J, Staab E, duShuttle D, Hatcher C, Shmunes J, Slaninka C. Awareness Through Movement Improves Quality of Life in People with Multiple Sclerosis. J Neurol Phys Ther. 27(4): 170, 2003. Abstract, Poster presented at APTA Combined Section Meetings, Nashville TN, February, 2004.
  96. Vollmer, Fred. How do I move my body?. Journal Article] Journal of Mind & Behavior. Vol 19(4) Fal 1998, 369-377. Inst of Mind & Behavior, US. Peer Reviewed.

    (from the journal abstract) What is it for me to do something is the question discussed in the present paper. It has been suggested that my doings are elicited by tryings, intentions, and other causal mechanisms. These theories do not offer any convincing analysis of what it is for me to act. Insight is sought by looking at some case studies involving temporary loss of the ability to move one’s body. What the case studies show, I conclude, is that when I move my body in the normal way, I do not first have to do something else that causes my body to move. Normal actions are events bodily beings can generate spontaneously (directly). An essential condition for having this kind of control is inside (proprioceptive) awareness of the body. When inner awareness of the body is lost, control can be taken over by visual awareness . But then movement loses its spontaneous character and depends on planning and intense concentration. One can think of the self ("I") from which my actions flow, as the mental life to which they belong, or as the consciousness that controls them.

  97. Wendell LL. Some effects of the Feldenkrais Method on Parkinsons symptoms and function. Unpublished case study by LL Wendell client and Marilyn Johnson, Feldenkrais Practitioner. June 2000. This is a brief, interesting, single case study documenting observations on changes in function before and after a year of Feld
    enkrais lessons..
  98. Wildman F, Stephens J, Aum L. Feldenkrais Method. In Novey DW (ed.), Clinicians Complete Reference to Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Mosby Publishers, St. Louis, MO. pp.393-406, 2000. This is a good summary article about the method with a review of research literature through 1998..
  99. Wolf, Steven L. Commentary on "Perception of postural limits in elderly nursing home and day care participants.". Journals of Gerontology: Series A: Biological Sciences & Medical Sciences. Vol 54A(3) Mar 1999, B131. Gerontological Society of America, US. Peer Reviewed.

    Comments on the article by S. Robinovitch and T. Cronin (see record 1999-10974-001). Wolf acknowledges that there may be merit to the hypothesis that older adults reach capabilities may be associated with a lack of awareness of their movement capabilities, potentially predisposing them to fall. Wolf also offers an alternative interpretation, that older Ss are aware of their capabilities but overestimate because of their concern for eminent loss of independence. Older Ss will overestimate if the alternative is to reveal behaviors that might threaten the security of maintained living in their immediate environment or the life to which they have become accustomed. He suggests that other factors should be examined, such as comorbidities, past falls history, and movement limitations as covariates may lead to further clarification to interpreting the data.

  100. Wright, J. Bodies, meanings and movement : a comparison of the language of a physical education lesson and a Feldenkrais movement class..[Article] Sport, education and society (Abingdon, England) 5(1), Mar 2000, 35-49 Total No. of Pages: 15. Peer Reviewed.

    In Western societies since (and probably before) Descartes, the human body has been objectified and alienated from the self, something to be subdued, managed and more recently worked upon as symbol of self-value. Sport and exercise are sites where the objectification of the body has been traditionally promoted. In recent times with the scientisation of elite sport and the commodification of bodies in sport, the objectification of the body has taken new forms and achieved greater prominence. Physical education as the school site for body work has been implicated in the process of objectification and alienation. The traditional practices of physical education, including choices in teacher language, position bodies as objects, and movement as an instrumental outcome of practice. Not all movement practices, however, subscribe to this approach. This paper will compare the language practices of teachers in a physical education lesson and a Feldenkrais movement class as these constitute different forms of embodiment, different selves. Its purpose is to provide further resources for critical reflection on the ways in which pedagogical practices position students and contribute to the shaping of particular forms of subjectivity.

 

© IOCOB 2008

Referentie

[1] Wanning T. | Healing and the mind/body arts: massage, acupuncture, yoga, t'ai chi, and Feldenkrais. | AAOHN J. | 1993 Jul;41(7):349-51.

[2] Gard G. | Body awareness therapy for patients with fibromyalgia and chronic pain. | Disabil Rehabil. | 2005 Jun 17;27(12):725-8.

[3] Gutman GM, Herbert CP, Brown SR. | Feldenkrais versus conventional exercises for the elderly. | J Gerontol. | 1977 Sep;32(5):562-72.

[4] Mehling WE, DiBlasi Z, Hecht F. | Bias control in trials of bodywork: a review of methodological issues. | J Altern Complement Med. | 2005 Apr;11(2):333-42.

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